Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry
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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 1

I N D U S T R Y A P P L I C A T I O N S S E R I E S A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 2

6 1 3 4 5 5 1 2 Pressurizer 7 9 8 4 10 Turbines To Turbines Generator High Pressure Low Pressure 6 REACTOR CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES STEAM TURBINE POWER GENERATION UNITS For a discussion of the major applications in conventional steam turbine power generation see Magnetrol’s PowerGen Applications brochure. LEVEL APPLICATIONS These applications utilize level instruments for process control. A separate alarm using a different technology often serves as a back-up for spill detection. PAGE 1. Emergency Coolant Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. SCRAM Discharge Volume Tank . . . . . ....

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 3

3 Application: The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) supplies cooling water to the reactor during an interruption of the reactor’s normal cooling system. Upwards of 250,000 gallons of emergency make-up water is drawn from Refueling Water Storage Tanks (RWST) during the injection phase and from a containment sump during the second recirculation phase. Challenges: Level control of Refueling Water Storage Tanks is essential for emergency cooling operations. Low levels in these tanks can trigger actuation of pumps which bring additional coolant from accumulators, deaerators, de-mineralized...

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 4

4 Application: Primary coolant circulating in a PWR is heated under extremely high pressures to prevent boiling. The heated coolant enters two or more boilers called Steam Generators (SG) and boils the secondary loop coolant in a heat transfer process accomplished without mixing the fluids together. The coolant turns to steam which drives the turbine- generator. Challenges: 30% of emergency PWR shutdowns are attributable to SG level control problems. Controls balance feedwater to steam flow under all operating conditions. High-high levels can trip the turbine. Abnormally low levels can...

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 5

5 Application: One-third of the total fuel load of a reactor is removed from the core every 12 to 18 months and replaced with fresh fuel. Spent fuel rods generate intense heat and high radiation and are stored underwater in pools with depths of 20 to 40 feet. The water cools the fuel and provides radiation shielding. Spent fuel is later sent for reprocessing or dry cask storage. Challenges: Without cooling, the spent fuel pool water will heat up and boil. Exposed fuel assemblies will overheat, melt or combust. Pool level is tightly controlled and water is continuously cooled by...

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 6

6 Application: Diesel-powered engine-generator sets provide emergency power to operate critical nuclear plant systems in the event of a loss of station service power. The main diesel fuel storage tank provides a fuel capacity for one to seven days of full-load generator operation. The main storage tank is connected to an indoor day tank holding less than 1,000 gallons. Challenges: Main storage tanks typically require a fuel level indicator with a remote indication transmitter. Sensors actuating electrical pumps connected to the main tank continuously monitor day tank fuel level. Day tank...

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 7

7 Application: Waste liquids from sumps, radioactive leakage collectors, the Reactor Cooling System (RCS), and allied systems are collected, stored and processed. Inactive wastes are discharged or reused; active wastes are collected for processing. Radioactive liquids can provide make-up to the RCS, the ECCS, and the spent fuel storage pool. Challenges: Waste liquids are collected and stored in large single- and double-walled tanks designed to suit radioactivity levels. Tanks are monitored for activity levels and their contents are processed, released or reused. Tank level instruments,...

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Nuclear Power - A Guide to Level Instrumentation for the Nuclear Power Industry - 8

AN INDUSTRY GUIDE TO LEVEL MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL FROM MAGNETROL Other industry and special application brochures from Magnetrol include: CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS 5300 Belmont Road • Downers Grove, Illinois 60515-4499 USA Phone: 630-969-4000 • Fax: 630-969-9489 magnetrol.com • info@magnetrol.com EUROPEAN HEADQUARTERS Heikensstraat 6 • 9240 Zele, Belgium Phone: 052 45.11.11 • Fax: 052 45.09.93 BRAZIL: Av. Dr. Mauro Lindemberg Monteiro • 185-Jd. Santa Fé, Osasco • São Paulo CEP 06278-010 CANADA: 145 Jardin Drive, Units 1 & 2 • Concord, Ontario L4K 1X7 CHINA: Plant 6, No. 191, Huajin Road •...

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