Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy
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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 1

INSTRUMENTS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY LEVEL AND FLOW S p e c i a l A p p l i c a t i o n S e r i e s BIOFUE L | BIOGAS | HYDROE L ECTRIC | GEOTHERMA L | SOL AR | WIND

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 2

2 BIOFUEL Biofuel is produced from biomass resources to make liquid fuels like ethanol, methanol, and biodiesel, and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane (see Biogas). Biofuels are primarily used to fuel transportation vehicles, but they can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. An ethanol plant in the U.S. ETHANOL: Ethanol is produced by converting the carbohydrates from biomass into sugar, which is then converted into ethanol in a fermentation process. Ethanol produced from cellulosic biomass is a newer, viable alternative to traditional corn-based ethanol....

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 3

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION: Biogas is primarily produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen—a process known as anaerobic digestion. Feed materials include biomass, manure, sewage, plants and plant waste, grease trap contents, and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). This type of biogas is composed of methane and carbon dioxide. BIOMASS GASIFICATION: Another type of biogas, syngas, is created using biomass feed materials in a process known as gasification. The resulting synthesis gas is composed primarily of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide...

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 4

HYDROELECTRIC POWER GENERATION The main components of a hydroelectric power plant are: The Reservoir, where water from a natural water body is stored; The Dam, its containment walls prevent the water from flowing and help harness the energy present in it; The Penstock, enclosed piping that connects the reservoir with the turbine’s propeller; and The Power Station, which contains the Power Generating Equipment. (The many level and flow applications associated with power generation are covered in Magnetrol’s PowerGen Industry Applications Brochure 41-175.) Not all hydroelectric power...

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 5

GEOTHERMAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION (1) Dry Steam Plants use steam piped directly from a geothermal reservoir. (2) Flash Steam Plants take high-pressure hot water and convert it to steam. As the water rises, the pressure is reduced and the water flashes to steam. (3) Binary Cycle Plants take heat from the geothermal water and transfer it to an organic fluid (a butane or pentane hydrocarbon) with a low boiling point in a high pressure heat exchanger known as a vaporizer. The heat transfer causes the second (or “binary”) liquid to turn to steam. OTHER GEOTHERMAL USES: Geothermal Heating is the...

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 6

TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS Different solar collectors meet different energy needs. Passive Solar designs capture the sun's heat to provide space heating and light. Photovoltaic Cells convert sunlight directly to electricity. Concentrating Solar Power systems focus sunlight with mirrors to create a high-intensity heat source, which then produces steam or mechanical power to run a generator that creates electricity. Flat-plate Collectors absorb the sun's heat directly into water or other fluids to provide hot water or space heating. SOLAR LEVEL and FLOW APPLICATIONS HEAT TRANSFER FLUID...

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 7

WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS Large wind conversion systems are most commonly deployed for power grid electricity generation. Smaller systems are used for water pumping. A system of blades mounted on a tower is turned by the wind to either produce mechanical work directly (via a water pump), or to employ a generator to transform mechanical work into electrical energy (wind turbines). Utility-scale wind turbines for land-based wind farms have rotor diameters ranging from 165 to 325 feet (50 to 100 meters). WIND TURBINE LEVEL APPLICATIONS WIND TURBINE OIL RESERVOIR: As wind energy technology advances,...

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Level and Flow Instruments for Renewable Energy - 8

PLEASE NOTE: The instruments recommended in this guide are based on field experience with similar applications and are included as a general guide to instrument selection. However, because all applications differ, customers should determine suitability for their own purposes. S p e c i a l A p p l i c a t i o n S e r i e s CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS 5300 Belmont Road • Downers Grove, Illinois 60515-4499 USA Phone: 630-969-4000 • Fax: 630-969-9489 magnetrol.com • info@magnetrol.com EUROPEAN HEADQUARTERS Heikensstraat 6 • 9240 Zele, Belgium Phone: 052 45.11.11 • Fax: 052 45.09.93 BRAZIL: Av. Dr....

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