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Oxygen Theory Guide - 84 Pages

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Oxygen Theory Guide

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Oxygen Theory Guide Mettler-Toledo GmbH Process Analytics Industry Environment A Guide to Oxygen Measurement Theory and Practice of Oxygen Applications

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Next Page Previous Page Copyright © 2016 by Mettler-Toledo GmbH CH-8902 Urdorf/Switzerland

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Contents Next Page Previous Page Print Close A Guide to Oxygen Measurement Theory and Practice of Oxygen Applications

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Next Page Previous Page Contents 1 Theoretical background of oxygen measurements 10 1.1 Physicochemical background of oxygen measurement 10 1.1.1 Units of pressure measurement 10 1.1.2 Dalton’s law on partial pressures 11 1.1.3 Henry’s law for gases dissolved in liquids 14 1.2 Solubility – oxygen concentration 15 1.3. Units for measurement of oxygen concentration 17 1.3.1 Concentration 18 1.3.2 Saturation 18 2 Calibration of oxygen sensors 20 2.1 1-point calibration 20 2.2 2-point calibration 21 2.3 General considerations for 2-point calibrations 21 2.4 Process calibration 22 2.5 Process...

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Next Page Previous Page 3.3.4 3-electrodes with guard ring – for traces of oxygen 34 3.4 Initial start-up and polarization 35 4 Optical oxygen measurement 38 4.1 Measurement technology 38 4.2 Design of METTLER TOLEDO optical oxygen sensors 41 4.3 Optical sensor calibration 41 4.3.1 Calibration requirements 42 4.4 Optical aging, stability control and calibration recommendations 45 4.4.1 Automatic Stability Control (ASC) 45 4.4.2 Recommended calibration frequency 47 4.5 Communication installation options 49 4.5.1 Digital communication 49 4.5.2 Simulated amperometric communication 49 5 Common...

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Next Page Previous Page 5.6 Sensor maintenance: optical sensors 61 5.6.1 Response testing 62 6 Intelligent Sensor Management (ISM) 64 6.1 Signal integrity 64 6.2 Pre-calibration 65 6.3 Predictive diagnostics 65 6.4 ISM algorithms in more detail 67 6.4.1 Dynamic Lifetime Indicator 67 6.4.2 Adaptive Calibration Timer 68 6.4.3 Time to Maintenance – for amperometric sensors 68 6.4.4 Total Operation of OptoCap (tooCap) – for optical sensors 69 6.4.5 Calibration history 69 6.4.6 Control – for optical sensors 69 6.5 Asset management software 70 6.5.1 Calibration 71 6.5.2 Electronic documentation...

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Contents Next Page Previous Page Print Close Table 1 Units for pressure and calculation from Pascal (SI unit) to other units10 Table 2 Vapor pressure for 100 % relative humidity at different temperatures13 Table 3 Solubility of oxygen in different media at 20 °C and 1013 mbar; 100 % saturation16 Table 4 Correlation of concentration and 100 % air saturation at different temperatures in water; pressure is normal pressure with 1013 mbar19 Table 5 Parameters which influence the amount of current between anode and cathode25 Table 6 Design of METTLER TOLEDO oxygen sensors for dissolved...

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Next Page Previous Page Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Gaseous composition of dry air 11 Influence of air pressure on partial pressures 12 Partial pressures of oxygen in dry air and humid air with a vapor pressure (water) of 31.7 mbar (hPa) (pwsat) 14 Henry’s law – the concentration of oxygen in the liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the oxygen in the gaseous phase surrounding the liquid 15...

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Next Page Previous Page Figure 23 Phi 0 and Phi 100 shifts and the effect of calibration Figure 24 Calibration adjustments without and with Automatic Stability Control Figure 25 Cracked and delaminated anode / cathode Figure 26 Membrane tear Figure 27 OptoCap fluorophore examples Figure 28 Impact of air bubbles and biological growth on an amperometric DO sensor Figure 29 Impact of air bubbles and biological growth on an optical DO sensor Figure 30 Response testing examples Figure 31 Typical sensor signal examples for troubleshooting amperometric oxygen sensors Figure 32 Typical sensor...

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Next Page Previous Page Oxygen Theory Guide Oxygen measurement and control plays an important role in many chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, power, and food & beverage processes. In fermentation, oxygen control leads to increased yield and decreased production of unwanted byproducts. Oxygen management in the chemical industry helps to avoid the formation of explosive gas mixtures, and oxidation control in the brewing industry results in increased quality and shelf life of end products. The in-line measurement of oxygen in liquid and gaseous mixtures is vital in these and countless...

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Contents Next Page Previous Page Print Close Contents Next Page Previous Page Print Close Oxygen Theory Guide 1    Theoretical background of oxygenmeasurements 1.1    Physicochemical background of oxygen measurement Oxygen typically is encountered as a gas. Therefore, the in-line and on-line measurement of oxygen in processes is a measurement of the pressure which the oxygen applies either in the gas or in the liquid in which it is dissolved. Depending on the kind of application and also on the habits of a certain industry, the oxygen concentration is expressed either in relative numbers,...

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Next Page Previous Page Since the measurement is dependent on the pressure of the oxygen, there are two particular physicochemical laws concerning pressure that are central to oxygen measurement: • Dalton’s law on partial pressures for oxygen in gaseous and liquid phases and • Henry’s law on gas solubility in liquids for measurements of oxygen dissolved in liquids. 1.1.2 Dalton’s law on partial pressures Dalton’s law states that, in ideal gases, the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. Air consists of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon...

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