How to measure light
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How to measure light - 1

T he L anguage > o f L ight The essentials of imagingwww.minolta.com.sg 10 Teban Gardens CrescentSingapore 608923Phone: (65) 5635533Fax: (65) 560 9721Email: iid@minolta.com.sg From perceptionto instrumentation size="-2">

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How to measure light - 2

1.1 What is light? 21.2 What can be measured? 2 >

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Light is necessary for vision. To most of us, it provides a world of visual information. The forms and coloursaround us are visible only when light from objects around us reaches our eye and triggers the sensation of sight. 2.1 R ADIOMETR Y > Radiometry is the science of the measurement of electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The broader spectrumcovered by the science of radiometry is based on physical constants.The properties of concern to us here are radiated power and its spatial and angular distributions.The four basic concepts are: Radiant FluxՕ Radiant Intensity Radiance Օ Irradiance 1.1 W...

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Issac Newton first demonstrated and explained the composition of white light, by refracting it through a glassprism into its constituent spectral colours. If coloured lights are added, this implies that different lights withdifferent spectral colours composition are added. The resultant effect on the brain can be any of the spectralcolours located in the visible spectrum, for example, yellow, or a non-spectral colour which does not appearin the spectrum as monochromatic light, for example, purple. Creation of colours by addition of colouredlights is known as additive mixing. It is found...

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2.4.4.3 SPECTRORADIOMETRY > Many different spectral power distribution curves can yield the same visual effect which we call colour. Itmeans that the colour of a light source does not tell us the nature of its spectral power distribution. In otherwords, two different light sources which have the same colour in x,y or colour temperature might not exhibitthe same spectral power distribution. The reverse, however, is true: knowledge of spectral power distributionof light will enable us to describe the colour (refer to Fig. 2.4.4.3 for the types of spectral power distributioncurve of some...

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3.2.3 APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOMETERS 3.2.3.2 ILLUMINANCE METER > There are a multitude of light measurements to be made. Not surprisingly, misapplication of photometricinstrument by user can become a common source of error. For many users, the main obstacle to effective lightmeasurement is the lack of understanding of the characteristics of the type of measurement required. Attemptsto convert between units will lead to gross errors. For example, the most common mistake encountered isattempting to use illuminance meter (lumen/m Illuminance is a measure of visible energy falling upon an objects...

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3.2.3.3 LUMINOUS FLUX METER > Hence, to measure the luminous intensity of a light source meaningfully, an agreed-upon fixture that definesthe solid angle encompassed by the measurement and that orients the light source repeatably in an specified direction must be used. In other words, such meters have to be configured for the geometry of the source under test.Basically, there are no off-the-shelf luminous intensity meters and comparison of measured data from two differentluminous intensity meters serve no purpose, unless their measurement geometries are identical. Luminous flux measurement...

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λ )sensorX= 21.21y( > The tristimulus values X, Y,Z are calculated by themicroprocessor and can beconverted to other colourspace λ )sensorY= 13.37z( λ )sensorZ= 9.32 Light sourceunder test > Three sensorscorresponding tothree types of conesin human eye Fig. 3.2.3.5a - Spectral energy distribution with spectral lines Fig. 3.2.3.5b - Spectral energy distribution of a narrow-band emitter Fig. 3.2.3.5c - Error in measurement caused by deviation between CIE tristimulus curve and instrumentsspectral response. Receptor sectionMicroprocessor The tristimulus values X, Y,Z are calculated by...

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Non-thermal radiators, such as discharge lamps (which can be characterised by their non-continuous spectral energy distribution), and narrow-band emitters can only be measured with precision by means of the spectralprocedure.When compared to three-filter colorimeters, spectroradiometers do have their limitations, in terms of speed ofmeasurement, price and portability. B illmeyer, Fred W (1981). Principles of color technology2nd Edition. Wiley & Sons, New York. H utson, Geoffrey, H. (1990). Colour Television ח 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company Europe, England. T he Photonics Dictionary A...

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