Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3
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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 1

LIGHTWAVE CATALOG Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis Anticipate_Accelerate_Achieve Agilent Technologies

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 2

Agilent Technologies Lightwave Catalog 2013 Since more than 30 years, Agilent offers high-performance solutions to support you in building the high-speed communication network. Your experience and feedback helped us to continuously improve the product performance and quality, while significantly reducing the cost, especially when it comes to manufacturing optical components. Your needs and my confidence into our quality let me now offer our products with a 3-year warranty that's standard on all instruments, worldwide. This combination of reliability and coverage brings you three key...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 3

ur BERTs help you keep up. Crosstalk Testing Delays. Make the next leap forward with Agilent BERTs. Characterize receiver or transceiver performance up to 32 Gb/s with the Agilent N4960A Serial BERT. Remotely mountable heads achieve signal fidelity even at high speeds, eliminating long signal-degrading cables. Agilent BERTs deliver accurate, repeatable results that help you precisely characterize performance and compliance.

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 4

Applications: Optimizing Manufacturing Test Cost www.agilent.com/find/dcax Common transceiver types and manufacturing flows Manufacturers of optical transceivers are faced with increasing challenges to their businesses, particularly how to reduce product cost. Pressures to reduce cost as data rates rise means manufacturing engineering managers and their engineers must be more creative in how to reduce costs before their competitors do. Traditional methods of eliminating tests or trying to make tests run faster may not be feasible, may not yield the intended benefit or may provide results...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 5

Applications: Optical Receiver Stress Test www.agilent.com/find/optical_stress The basic test for these network elements is the bit error ratio, demonstrating reliable operation in digital data transmission systems and networks. The basic principle is simple: the known transmitted bits are compared with the received bits over a transmission link including the device under test. The bit errors are counted and compared with the total number of bits to give the bit error ratio (BER). The applied test data signal can be degraded with defined stress parameters, like transmission line loss,...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 6

Optical Receiver Stress Test Stress conditioning setup: Stress conditioning varies depending on the standard and the speed class of the component. But the principle of stress conditioning remains the • Firstly, this block adds different types of jitter, like random jitter, periodic jitter or sinusoidal jitter, to generate defined horizontal closure of the test pattern's eye shape • Secondly, this block exposes different types of amplitude distortions, like sinusoidal amplitude interference and low-pass filtering, to generate defined vertical closure of the eye-shape • 4th Order Bessel...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 7

Applications: Optical Receiver Stress Test www.agilent.com/find/optical_stress Reference transmitter conditioning setup Signal characterization measurement This setup varies depending on the speed class and number of lanes. For single lane setups it is just an E/O converter and an optical attenuator. For multi-lane applications it gets more complicated. Test signal calibration and verification WDM conformance testing 40 Gbase, 100 Gbase -LR4, -ER4 Reference receiver: Optical to electrical converter with 4th Order Bessel Thomson response and reference frequency ft of: ƒt = 7.5 GHz for 8 GFC...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 8

Applications: Testing Transceivers Used in Fibre Channel Networks www.agilent.com/find/n4960a Figure 1. For 16x fibre channel (16 GFC) for transceiver testing. There are three topologies in this type of network including point-to-point, arbitrated loop, and switched fabric. The connections between devices use transceivers for optimization. For example, in a switched fabric topology, SFP+ (8 GFC and 16 GFC), XFP (10 Gb/s) and SFP (≤ 4 Gb/s) are types of transceivers that connect between the switched fabric and various devices such as storage and computing equipment. Typical patterns used to...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 9

Passive Optical Network (PON) Test Solution This example from the optical communication domain is about passive optical networks (PON) based on time division multiple access (TDMA) as used byGPON and BPON. A passive optical network (PON) - specified by the full service access network (FSAN) vendor consortium - is an access technology for FTTx networks using small inexpensive, passive splitters, instead of optical repeaters. In downstream direction, the signal from an optical line terminal (OLT) is split and sent to optical network units (ONUs). The upstream direction is more challenging for...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 10

Applications: Communications Waveform Measurements www.agilent.com/find/dcax Application overview For eye mask testing industry defined masks are compared to the transmitter eye-diagram. Pass/Fail is quickly determined. Mask margins can be automatically determined. Eye mask test to industry defined hit ratios (a relatively new concept defined as the allowed number of hits compared to the total number of waveform samples) is also automatically performed. Eye mask tests are almost always performed using a reference receiver. A reference receiver defines the entire measurement system to have a...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 11

Applications: Communications Waveform Measurements www.agilent.com/find/dcax The “equivalent time” sampling oscilloscope, with configurations having over 80 GHz of bandwidth and extremely low levels of intrinsic jitter, is the most accurate tool available for jitter measurements at high data rates. Waveform measurements Not all waveform measurements of optical signals are performed with a reference receiver. The filtering can be switched out to provide a wider bandwidth measurement system. The unfiltered properties of the waveform are accurately observed. The transmitter output may be...

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Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2013 Volume 3 - 12

Bit Error Ratio Test Solutions www.agilent.com/find/bert Agilent offers the broadest portfolio with four BERT families that address a variety of speed classes, usability concepts, and flexibility as well as application specific stimulus and analysis tools. All BERTs provide cost-effective and efficient in-depth insight into critical measurement tasks for today’s and next generation devices with gigabit interfaces. Bit error ratio test solutions Agilent offers the broadest choice of BERTs — covering affordable manufacturing test and high-performance characterization and compliance testing up...

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