Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEMS) for Cogeneration Facilities


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Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEMS) for Cogeneration Facilities - 1

Application Note Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEMS) for Cogeneration Facilities Cogeneration facilities produce electrical energy as a by-product of their steam production. The steam is produced either for heat or as a requirement of a manufacturing process. Cogeneration facilities can utilize multiple and varied fuel sources. These fuels can include natural gas, oil, coal, wood, various forms of bio-solids, and even tires. Combined cycle cogeneration facilities are becoming popular in meeting increasing energy demands. A typical facility will include a gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a steam turbine. The size of cogeneration facilities can vary greatly from small hospitals to large petrochemical complexes. Monitoring Requirements Cogeneration facilities vary significantly in size, fuel burned, pollution abatement equipment installed, and geographic location. As a result, the continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) requirements placed upon a given facility will also vary from plant to plant. The primary federal regulations defining continuous emissions monitoring requirements are found in 40 CFR 60 and 40 CFR 75. The latter is also known as the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. However, state and local agencies do have the ability to impose additional and/or stricter requirements for the monitoring and control of pollutants. The federal regulations, based upon the fuel(s) utilized and the generating capacity of the facility, may require the monitoring of sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), opacity, a diluent [carbon dioxide (CO2) or oxygen (O2) and stack flow. In addition to the above requirements, state and local agencies may also call for the monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) and, in those plants where SCR or SNCR is utilized for NOx reduction, may require monitoring of ammonia (NH ) as well. 3 A Modular Solution Emerson Process Management provides process analyzers and continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) designed to effectively meet the needs and requirements of cogeneration facilities. Manufactured at Emerson’s Rosemount Analytical ISO 9001 certified facilities, these pre-engineered CEMS can measure up to five gases and opacity, to the more complex systems measuring multiple gases using data acquisition and handling systems. Emerson CEMS guarantee EPA certification and are point-of-impact information sources that help keep you in compliance with complex environmental regulations and fine-tune your processes for greater efficiency and increased profitability. Process Analyzers X-STREAM Flameproof Gas Analyzer (X2FD) The X-STREAM flameproof gas analyzer provides single and multicomponent gas analysis in a severe service, explosion-proof housing. Coupled with a remote-mounted sample conditioning system and flow distribution/system controller, an X-STREAM X2F-based CEMS becomes a truly modular emissions monitoring system. This configuration allows sample extraction and conditioning anywhere along the sampling train, reducing costs for heated sample lines, equipment racks and instrument shelters.

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Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEMS) for Cogeneration Facilities - 2

Power X-STREAM Enhanced General Purpose Gas Analyzer (XEGP) The X-STREAM Enhanced series of gas analyzers features multichannel analysis utilizing infrared, ultraviolet and visible (NDIR/UV/ VIS) photometry, paramagnetic and electrochemical oxygen, and thermal conductivity sensor technologies. This feature, coupled with the use of a single light source and detector, establishes the OPM Series as the only truly digital, solidstate transmissometer. X-STREAM analyzers can measure up to 4 components and the measuring principles may be ordered in various combinations. The physical benches can be...

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