Second Harmonic Generation


Catalog excerpts

Second Harmonic Generation - 1

Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging using the Chromacity 1040 Second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy (SHG Microscopy, also known as SHIM) offers several advantages for live cell and tissue imaging. The ultrashort pulsewidth of the Chromacity 1040 is ideal for generating a second-harmonic response from a wide range of biological samples. This application note illustrates the suitability of the Chromacity 1040 for generating SHG images in starch and collagen fibres. Second harmonic generation imaging Collagen imaging In recent years, SHG microscopy has proven its capability in the study of crystallized biomolecules such as starch, collagen and myosin. Unlike fluorescence-microscopy, SHG microscopy does not involve the creation of excited electronic states, so cell viability issues associated with heating and photo-bleaching are reduced. By using near-infrared wavelengths it enables the construction of 3-D images of specimens by imaging deeper into thick tissues. It enables the direct visualization of tissue structure (in situ) as it relies only on species present in the sample to provide a contrast. Imaging with external markers/labels normally only infer structural aspects as it relies on absorption whereas SHG microscopy signals stem from an induced polarization of tissue samples whose structural organization and molecular orientation are non-centrosymmetric, such as collagen and starch. The non-centrosymmetric molecular structure of collagen makes it an ideal sample to image with SHG microscopy. Using a simple setup illustrated in Fig. 2 images of collagen fibres could be acquired in both the forward and backward directions. Fig. 1 demonstrates the typical images that can be generated by SHG Microscopy when using the Chromacity 1040. Fig. 2 illustrates the imaging of collagen fibres overlaid on a liver sample which has been imaged using multiphoton microscopy. The SHG method enables accurate structural information to be detected using the Chromacity 1040 as an excitation source. The liver has been imaged using mT:mG and two-photon microscopy with a two channel detection system enabled the simultaneous acquisition of SHG images of the collagen and the two-photon fluorescene signal of the liver, before recombining as a single image. FIGURE 1. SHG images of collagen fibres. Images a) and b) are images of the same sample collected in the forward and backward directions respectively. Image c) is a composite showing the detail of the fibres. To acquire these images 300 mW of laser light was incident on the galvo-scanning mirrors. Discover More FIGURE 2. SHG image of collagen fibres on liver. Version 2 © Chromacity Ltd - 2020

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Second Harmonic Generation - 2

Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging using the Chromacity 1040 Experimental Setup and Starch Imaging Starch, which is an important food source and a promising future energy candidate, has been shown to exhibit strong SHG response and is a relatively new tool/marker for plant research and other applications. Fig. 3(a). illustrates how the Chromacity 1040 was used to generate an SHG signal in a solution of starch molecules. Unlike solid-state lasers, which can produce beams with an elliptical cross- section because of astigmatism in the laser cavity, the laser’s beam originates from a...

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