Ultracapacitor Applications in the Power Electronic World - 8 Pages

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Ultracapacitor Applications in the Power Electronic World

Catalog excerpts

By Adri an S c hneu w l y , Gi anni Sartor elli, Jurge n Auer and Bobby Maher M a x w ell T e ch n o logies, In c. > There has been a lot of progress in contro l and motor design, d u e to the increasing pow e r deman d in elect r ic appl icat i o n s , as w e ll as on goin g pressu res for more en v i ron m en t a lly f r ien d l y an d high efficiency s o lutions. However, designers and engineers have not been su ccessful with regard to th e electric power storage systems. This is due primarily to the fact that batteries are used to provide the power peaks in most o f the currently deve lope d solu t i on s rely in g on a pow e r st orage system. The deficiencies of battery stor age systems are many and they create a variety of design challe nges for engineer s. Batteries have a poor low-temperature perf orman c e, a v e ry li mit e d l i f e t i me u n d er ex t r eme condit ion s - resu lt in g in repeat ed replacem ent throughout the lif e of the system - and they are not designed to satisfy the most important requirements of power sources: To pro v ide bursts of power in the secon d s range over many h und reds of thousands o f c y cles [ 1 ]. Today, ultracapacitors are availab l e from major production firms in the United States, Eur o pe, and Asia, and are availab l e in a variety of sizes and co nfigurations . Figure 1: Typical availa ble ultracapacit ors from Max w el l : PC10 wi th 10 F an d BCAP0010 with 2600 F > | Maxwel l Technol o gi es | 9244 Bal b oa A v enue, S a n D i ego, CA 92123, Uni t ed S t ates | | Phone: +1- 858- 503- 330 0 | Fax: +1-858- 503- 330 1 | Web: www.maxwe l l.co m | M a xwe l l T e c h n o lo g i e s , I n c . size="-1">

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Ultracapacit or prices are within the cost ta rgets of ma ny i n dustri al systems, a n d will be approaching $0.01 per farad in produc tion volumes of millions by 2004. W h en appropriately designed with a sys t ems appr oach, they offe r excellent performance, wi de temperature rang e, l o ng l i f e, and fl exi b l e management. Whe n us ed i n combination with other energy storage so l u ti ons (e.g . l e ad-aci d batteri es, f u el engines, and fuel cells), th e complete system can meet p e rformance and cos t go als u n a ch iev a bl e w i t h a single en ergy st orage device. Ult r...

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Figure 2 s h ows the res u lts in ener gy saving s pe r hour obtained by an energy storage system ove r a time period of 3 we eks. Th e m e dium reduction of the operating power by 50 kW r e sults in energy saving s of up to 3 40 MW h per year. In ad di ti on, due t o the protecti on of the braking resistors a reduction of the CO > 2 emission s of almost 370 t per year are achieved. In Figure 3, a sto r age box eq uipped with ultracapacitors is presented. To achieve the syste m voltag e of 750 V as well as the required energy content necessary to store the braking en ergy of a l i g ht r a...

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Figure 4: 42 V E l ectric power steering system > In industrial electronics, numerous firms are well into the production cycle for ultracapacitor-based systems - recognizing the advantages and a v ai labi li ty of t h e ultracapacitor to meet their business and t e chn i cal requ ire m en t s . Applicat ion s su ch as people movers, elevators and co nveyor s y stems use ultracapacitors to reduce power peaks in the net and to ac hieve important e n ergy savings [ 4 ]. As sh ort dev i at ion s in pow e r su pply v o lt age can in f l u e n c e or in t e rru pt t h e correct operat ion of...

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es es 100% 100% ur ur l l 45 i i a a F F 40 s s 80% 80% n n i i 35 ] a a 60% 60% V 30 [ e of M of M 25 ty ty i i ag t l 20 bil bil 40% 40% Vo 15 U l trac a pac i t o r V o l t a g e oba oba Pr Pr 20% 20% 10 e e v v 50 0% 0% Relati Relati 0,01 0,01 0,1 0,1 1 1 10 10 100 100 100 100 1000 1000 . 0. 2. 4. 6. 8. Duration Duration of of M M a a ins ins Fa Fa ilu ilu r r es es 10 Ti me [ s ] F i gu re 5: Relat i v e probabil it y of main s f a ilu res F i gu re 6: Ult r acapacit or v o lt age during discharge at 50 % load In wi nd po wer pl ant pi tch systems ul tracapaci t ors represent a n opti...

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As the need for smaller and more lightweight s y stems in cr eases, design engineers require innovative design approac h es to reduc e si ze and heaviness without sacrif icin g o v eral l perf orman c e an d reli abi l i t y , especia lly o f port able produ c t s . Interestingly, the comp onent that presents pe rhaps the keenest challenge in many portable designs is the same component th at r e mains an inescapable necessity to those designs the battery. As the main so urc e of power i n most portable products, f i n d in g an ideal bat t e ry in t e rms of siz e , w e ight , an d perf...

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l e vel the l o ad on the battery. I t ca n be seen th at by addi n g the ul trac apaci t ors across t h e alk a lin e bat t e ries, th e cy cle lif e is drast i call y in creased ( Figure 9 ). Important t o note i s t h at wi th t h e hel p of the Ul tr acapaci t ors the basi c, i n expensi v e al kali ne batteries achieve the same life cycle as ex pensive, new high-power batteries. By u s in g th e u l t r acapacit or in paralle l w i t h th e alkal i n e bat t e ries, th e ov eral l sy st em impedance will drop, therefore allo wing the ba ttery to act as a pure energy so urc e . Thus,...

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Ultracapacitors can also benefit products designed for use with batteries capable of high-power discharges. For example, a web-enabled Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) that currently uses a nickel cadmium battery to supply power when sending internet emails might be better served by an ultracapacitor. To be sure, the battery is an adequate source of energy for transmitting information from the PDA, however, it has a finite life and would ultimately need to be replaced. By contrast, an ultracapacitor can cycle enough times to last the life of the product. Other current and potential portable...

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