Elemental Analysis of Hydrocarbon Streams Using Dry Colorimetry Analyzers, a Catalyst Savior - 7 Pages

Add to MyDirectIndustry favorites
Elemental Analysis of Hydrocarbon Streams Using Dry Colorimetry Analyzers, a Catalyst Savior
  1. P. 1

  2. P. 2

  3. P. 3

  4. P. 4

  5. P. 5

  6. P. 6

  7. P. 7

Catalogue excerpts

Elemental analysis of hydrocarbon streams using Dry colorimetry analyzers, a catalyst saviour Bushra Dawood, Application Coordinator C.I. Analytics www.cianalytics.com The Petrochemical industry has refined technological developments to improve product quality. One, in particular, is the ability to measure trace impurities at extremely low levels. This is a crucial step for the industry to reduce agents that can eventually cause pollution as they can cause harmful health and environmental effects. In addition, it is essential for the industry to reduce agents that can eventually cause catalyst poisoning and corrosion in the metal structures where processes are being held. Indeed, companies need to protect their expensive catalysts used in the chemical reactions performed during the cracking, isomerisation, reforming and many other processes. This article explains how the tape detection technique saves catalysts used in different industrial processes. Introduction to dry colorimetric method Since the creation of oil refining, a variety of treatment methods have been used to remove non-hydrocarbon impurities and other constituents. These compounds reduce the efficiency of the conversion processes and reduce the quality of the finished products. It is necessary to remove impurities from blending stocks in several processes such as treatment, drying and sweetening. There are many analytical methods used in industrial settings for the quantitative analysis of impurities, but not all are efficient and cost effective. Companies need methods that are fast, precise, versatile and virtually interference-free. One technique that fulfills these demands is the dry colorimetric method. This technique can measure at ultra-low detection ranges from parts per million (ppm), to parts per billion (ppb). In addition to meeting ultra-lowlevels, it is considered safe and non-toxic. For the user, simple care as you would for household cleaners would suffice. The dry colorimetric method is a simple and easy way to measure

 Open the catalogue to page 1

impurities in reactions where hydrocarbons are used as reactants. This method is suited for elemental analysis as well as total analysis in process or in a laboratory setting depending on the application. Many chemical and petrochemical processes require expensive catalysts to materialize their final product, however, their catalyst can be destroyed by impurities or byproducts contained in the reaction. Some of those processes are discussed below. Haber - Bosch process The Haber–Bosch process is used for Nitrogen fixation intended for production of ammonia in large quantities. This innovation...

 Open the catalogue to page 2

gas and various feeds of refining, chemical modification of coal and chemical fiber. Before, during and after processing, crude oil is desulfurized using sweetening compounds and acids. The reaction involved in removing sulfur using iron oxide sulfur recovery catalyst is as follows: 2Fe2O3+3H2S→FeS+FeSx+S+3H2O In most cases it is important to measure the contaminants of the reactants in contact with catalysts to prevent their degradation. Hydrodesulphurization process is a prerequisite prior to exposure of the stream to platinum catalyst in order to prevent the poisoning of the catalyst. Removing...

 Open the catalogue to page 3

which is considered a contaminant in certain feed stocks. This simple precaution prevents from spending excessive amount of money in repairs from corrosion. Hydrogenation process Gas analyzers are also required for the impurity analysis of the reactant gas or liquid of the hydrogenation process of methane derivatives (alkenes and alkynes) in presence of catalysts such as platinum, palladium or nickel to form alkanes. The purpose of these catalysts is to adsorb dihydrogen and activate them to react with ethene and produce ethane. This hydrogen fixation reaction is very suitable for ethylene and...

 Open the catalogue to page 4

Test method Samples can be analysed in either liquid or gaseous form. Chemical testing of samples can be done automatically or by using an injection valve. At the injection port of the elemental analyzer gaseous arsine, ammonia, phosphine or hydrogen sulphide are injected and analyzed directly. However, if a chemical modification is required, as in the case of Nox or total nitrogen, liquid or gas samples are directly injected into the preheated section of the reaction tube. The liquid samples are heated to achieve a gaseous state. Once the sample reaches the furnace in a gaseous state it is mixed...

 Open the catalogue to page 5

and total arsenic, below is a list of some of the impurities that can also be detected. Measurable impurities using this method are: Table 1. Detectable Impurities with analytical range Impurities Lower detectable limits* Ammonia (NH3) 5 ppb Arsine (AsH3) 1 ppb Chlorine (Cl2) 5 ppb Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) 5 ppb Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) 5 ppb Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) 500 ppb Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) 1 ppb Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) 25 ppb Phosphine (PH3) 1 ppb Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) 1 ppb *Detection range can be optimized to meet application requirements Elemental analysis of gaseous streams is fairly easy...

 Open the catalogue to page 6

contaminants before problems occur. As described in the test method section elemental analysis of hydrocarbon impurities can be performed using an analyzer that functions with dry colorimetric means. This method is good for a variety of chemical impurities at ultra low PPB levels, but only few applications are mentioned. “Hydrocarbon”, Encyclopaedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 30 Aug. 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/278321/hydrocarbon/277897/Chemical-reactions th Richard S. Kraus , “Petroleum refining process”. Encyclopedia Of Occupational Health And Safety . 4 Edition, volume 3, Geneva,...

 Open the catalogue to page 7

All C.I. Analytics catalogues and technical brochures